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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-22

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review

Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, University, Doha, Qatar

Correspondence Address:
Ziad G Nasr
College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, P. O. Box: 2713, Doha
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DOI: 10.4103/2468-6360.198800

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Sodium-glucose cotransporter - 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of anti-diabetics proven to reduce blood pressure, blood glucose and body weight. However, the long-term cardiovascular (CV) safety implications of these agents remain unclear. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the available clinical trial evidence pertaining to long-term cardiovascular safety of SGLT2 inhibitors. The databases EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched. Randomized controlled trials assessing CV safety of SGLT2 inhibitors compared with placebo or anti-diabetic medications were included. Two investigators independently extracted study data and completed risk of bias assessments (sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, or selective outcome reporting and other biases). Outcomes included CV death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A total of 464 studies were identified in the electronic search and 14 from other sources. Sixteen randomized clinical trials were included after full-text review. All studies reported at least one of the pre-defined outcomes (CV death, myocardial infarction, and stroke). Nineteen CV deaths were reported in SGLT2 inhibitors groups versus 10 CV deaths in placebo or other comparator arms; numerically higher in the dapagliflozin arms. The number of CV events was numerically higher in SGLT2 inhibitor groups than in other arms. Risk of bias assessment showed mixed results, with overall quality assessments deemed unclear for 6 of 16 studies (37.5%). Findings showed CV outcomes do occur in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors yet the clinical significance remains unclear. These results can be considered hypothesis generating, as studies were limited by inadequate power and/or follow-up time. Future longitudinal studies are needed to further assess the efficacy and safety profiles of these new agents before they become widely adopted in clinical practice.

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